Codeine is one of the naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloids of opium derived from the opium poppy; it is classified pharmacologically as a narcotic analgesic. Codeine phosphate may be chemically designated as 7,8-Didehydro-4,5α-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6α -ol phosphate (1:1)(salt) hemihydrate.
The phosphate salt of codeine occurs as white, needle-shaped crystals or white crystalline powder. Codeine phosphate is freely soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 406.37, a molecular formula of C18H21NO3•H3PO4•½H2O.
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Promethazine hydrochloride, a phenothiazine derivative, is chemically designated as (±)-10-[2-(Dimethylamino)propyl] phenothiazine monohydrochloride.
Promethazine hydrochloride occurs as a white to faint yellow, practically odorless, crystalline powder which slowly oxidizes and turns blue on prolonged exposure to air. It is soluble in water and freely soluble in alcohol. It has a molecular weight of 320.88, a molecular formula of C17H20N2S•HCl.
Codeine: Narcotic analgesics, including codeine, exert their primary effects on the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. The analgesic effects of codeine are due to its central action; however, the precise sites of action have not been determined, and the mechanisms involved appear to be quite complex. Codeine resembles morphine both structurally and pharmacologically, but its actions at the doses of codeine used therapeutically are milder, with less sedation, respiratory depression and gastrointestinal, urinary, and pupillary effects. Codeine produces an increase in biliary tract pressure, but less than morphine or meperidine. Codeine is less constipating than morphine.
Codeine has good antitussive activity, although less than that of morphine at equal doses. It is used in preference to morphine, because side effects are infrequent at the usual antitussive dose of codeine.
Codeine in oral therapeutic dosage does not usually exert major effects on the cardiovascular system.
Narcotic analgesics may cause nausea and vomiting by stimulating the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ); however, they also depress the vomiting center, so that subsequent doses are unlikely to produce vomiting. Nausea is minimal after usual oral doses of codeine.
The average effective dose for adults and children (12 years and over) is: 1 teaspoonful (5mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.
The average effective dose for children 6 years to under 12 years of age is ½ to 1 teaspoonful (2.5 mL to 5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.
Promethazine Hydrochloride and Codeine Phosphate Syrup contains promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, codeine phosphate 10 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL), and pint (473 mL) bottles.
Store at 20 - 25°C (68 - 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.
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each 5 mL contains: Promethazine hydrochloride 6.25 mg; codeine phosphate 10 mg. Alcohol 7%Indication: Cough Suppressant
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